Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is an uncommon disorder in which maturation (growth) arrest occurs in the formation of erythrocytes (red blood cells). Secondary PRCA occurs in patients with conditions such as autoimmune disorders, thymomas, systemic lupus erythematosus, hematologic malignancies, and solid tumors. The life expectancy of patients with idiopathic PRCA is about 1-2 decades. The survival of patients with congenital PRCA is limited. The lifespan of patients with secondary PRCA depends on the course of the underlying disorder.